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Understanding types of Loan

In Banking, Finance on May 28, 2012 at 9:58 am

Money requirement changes over a period of time, some individuals require money to build house, some for marriage, buying an expensive car or it may be for kid’s education. Corporate houses have different requirements like starting a new business, expansion of existing business etc. These requirements can be fulfilled by selection of few options. First option is to self – fund, second option is to take loan (debt), third option is to raise equity and last is through partnership/joint venture and strategic arrangements. When self-funding is not available, corporate mostly avail a mix of debt and equity. Equity has lots of entry barrier and required large capital, individual go for taking a loan.

A loan is given by one party to another party with the agreement that money will be repaid after a certain period of time. In a loan contract, borrower (who takes the loan) pays certain percentage of the principal amount to lender (who gives the loan) as compensation for borrowing. Maturity date of the loan is the date by which the borrower must have paid the loan.

There are 2 types of loan – secured loans and unsecured loan.

When a loan which is guaranteed by collateral, it is termed as secured loan. Its best example is home loan – when a person buys a home, he/she make some amount as down payment to the builder and for rest amount he/she may take as home loan from a bank or financial institution. In case of default of the assets, lender (bank or financial institution) has right to seize home.

When borrower does not deposit any kind of asset against the loan, it is termed as unsecured loan. Personal loans, bank overdraft and corporate bonds are good example of this.

They are other very popular loans like business loans (type of secured loan) where borrower need to present a business plan, education loan (unsecured loan up to a specific amount) where borrower is a student and take this loan for higher education.

Now an interesting question arise in the mind how banks categorize whom to give loan or not. See my next blog on this.

 

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